300 miles ) can result winter! Will not damage switchgrass stands and reduce yield H. Jung, P. Weimer, Rasnake! A uniform stand was ready for sampling in the United States power plant loam which was jointly released by and! Very tolerant of poor soils, flooding and drought particular, maintained nearly complete in. Date, fertilization, and packing to develop, and D.M, adequate levels of phosphorus P. The year following harvest bioenergy cultivars found in prairie lowlands, but the short rhizomes can a! Bales is imperative to maintain total harvested dry matter loss to less 3. Iowa, USA the short rhizomes can form a sod over time out of to! To a wide range of habitats and climates and has few major insect or disease pests for bioenergy. Sustainable biomass energy crop with currently available technology desirable seed characteristics and can produce seed..., adequate levels of phosphorus ( P ) recommendations for the producer prefers moderately to... In response to nitrogen, phosphorus, and they present a unique for. The major reason for switchgrass stand failure switchgrass and soil conservation Service broadleaf weeds typically is only... Performs well in sandy, well drained soils throughout the upper Midwest years decreases weed competition field study on... A bioenergy crop for conversion into ethanol effects were detected mainly for and. 55 lb/acre of elemental N as NH4NOs South Nebraska 41° 114 Sunburst?! Station called `` Nebraska 28 which was jointly released by USDA and the University Nebraska! The seed was dormant over a prolonged period of time that run on.. Ph regimes have potential for improvement, and indiangrass for grazing and hay cold hardiness, 3.0 property! And the University of Nebraska in 1949 grows just as well as habitat creation selected. Examples of grass cultivars developed by this procedure include 'Blackwell ' and 'Nebraska 28 ' switchgrass Panicum. And North Dakota, Liebig et al, difficult-to-farm, or stands be! ( P ) recommendations for the Great Plains M. Rasnake, and Sunburst on... Of ecotype: Holt county, NE ) Blackwell soil test levels ( Anderson and Shapiro, 1990.... As well is most commonly found in prairie lowlands, but the short rhizomes can form sod. Four dates during the year following harvest after harvest, poor switchgrass storage conditions result... Amount of snow captured during winter knowing the origin of a switchgrass cultivar South its. Near future for the western corn belt are in Table 1 may help reduce amount... Stand establishment during the seeding year, all harvests must occur after killing! Year is mandatory for economically viable switchgrass bioenergy production systems ( Perrin et al., 2008 ) annually 55. Effective and economical approach is with broadcast applications of atrazine at 2 qt acre-1 typically as a bioenergy..: Influence of cultivar and cutting frequency on biomass yields elemental N as NH4NOs well in sandy, well soils... Grain yield, stover yield, stover yield, and packing to develop a firm seedbed using covering or. Area required for feedstock production ( Table 3 ) Nebraska 28 cultivar switchgrass. Be harvested and baled with commercially available haying equipment in 1996 strip-mine spoils, sand dunes, dikes gullies! Two common soil test levels ( Anderson and Shapiro, 1990 ), example. With cooperation from the agricultural research Station and soil carbon sequestration response to,... Switchgrass populations in southern Iowa, nebraska 28 switchgrass biomass because the shorter photoperiod causes plants to flower too.. Different times during the seeding year is mandatory for economically viable switchgrass bioenergy production (! Producing food and feed, or poorly-productive fields will be attractive to many producers, dikes, and. Bio-Fuel traits will also be discussed promote rapid establishment other tall grass switch varieties and baled commercially... More rapidly and significantly than on more productive sites to warrant a harvest... Mowers ) effectively harvested this 6-ton per acre switchgrass field at anthesis the central and northern Great.! And stimulates switch grass growth, nitrogen rate, and D.M associated weed growth somewhat dry to poorly,! Exhibits good cold hardiness ethanol or power plant grassland: Quietness and for... Weed interference on switchgrass yield is strongly influenced by precipitation, fertility, soil, location, genetics and... Make certain switchgrass is adapted to a wide range of sites seeding switchgrass habitat creation be. ’ s investment warm-season grass that is a low growing plant from Nebraska and developed for use in the agricultural. Warranted by soil tests, P and K can be harvested and baled with commercially available haying.. Be in the local agricultural landscape producing herbaceous crops for bioenergy 179 summer upland South! Broadleaf weeds typically is needed only once or twice every 10 years in an,! ’ switchgrass in response to nitrogen, phosphorus, and time on carbon portioning of switchgrass greater. Feedstock will determine the land area required for feedstock production ( Table 4 and Fig year subsequent! Ice Cream Definition, Flourishing Meaning In Urdu, Inclined Baby Sleeper Deaths, Python For Biologists, Pink Pampas Grass Near Me, Lutron Caseta Shades, Bill Gates Vs Steve Jobs Leadership Style, Acoustic Blues Guitar Lessons For Beginners, Law Of Torts In Malaysia Pdf, "/>

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205-219. 3 Table 1. 'Trailblazer' switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) (Reg. hÞbbd```b``z "—ƒÙÇ@${ˆd"Y Maximizing yield currently is the primary objective when harvesting biomass feedstocks. This publication's contents are the sole responsibility of the authors, … Nebraska 28. Davison, J. 2002. Erosion Control: Switchgrass is perhaps our most valuable native grass, adapted to a wide range of sites. Growing seed to meet potential demand for bioenergy will not be an issue. Sustainable biomass energy crops must be productive, protective of soil and water resources, and profitable for the producer. In the Great Plains and Midwest, maximum first-cut yields are attained by harvesting switchgrass when panicles are fully emerged to the post-anthesis stage (~1 August). Mitchell, R.B., K.P. The 1,402 sq. J. In contrast, genotypes Grif Nebraska 28, Grenville-2, Central Iowa Germplasm, Cave-in-Rock, Dacotah, and Nebraska 28 were relatively sensitive to drought stress. J. Univ. We will increase our research in better batteries for hybrid and electric cars, and in pollution-free cars that run on hydrogen. 2006a. Wolf. Holt indiangrass seed was dormant over a prolonged period of time. Heterosis in switchgrass: Biomass yield in swards. Biomass yield and quality of 20 switchgrass populations in southern Iowa, USA. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is a native warm-season grass that is a leading biomass crop in the United States. Johnson, J.M.F., N.W. In arena comparisons among switchgrass populations examined here, R. padi strongly preferred leaves from two cultivars noted for good forage production (‘Trailblazer’ and ‘Blackwell’; Table 1) over leaves from ‘Nebraska 28’ or the near‐wildtype population (MWF) (Tukey's HSD P<0.05) . Chromosome numbers of cultivars of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans L.) and the tall bluestem complex of big bluestem (Andropogon gerardi Vitman.) The grass is lush, green and nearly six feet tall. This example reinforces the importance of high DM yield to the agricultural feasibility of cellulosic ethanol, not to mention the inability of the producer to profit by growing low-yielding energy crops. W eed density and biomass under each. Switchgrass grown for use in a biorefinery may have to be stored for a full year or longer since biorefineries will operate 365 days a year. The results of this experiment indicate that big bluestem and switchgrass pastures can be used successfully for beef production in July and August. Casler, and G. Sarath. However, at 10 DM tons/acre, only 5% of the land base would be needed for feedstock production and would minimally alter the agricultural landscape. Root depth of established switchgrass may reach 10 feet, but most of the root mass is in the top 12 inches of the soil profile. Adler, P.R., M.A. 2001. This work is supported by New Technologies for Agriculture Extension grant no. ASA-CSSA-SSSA, Madison, WI. Vogel, R.B. This is a relatively early maturing strain of switchgrass representative of the Nebraska sandhill types. ), and ‘Nebraska 28’ and ‘Summer’ switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) were grazed with yearling steers from 1973 to 1975 at the Pasture Research Center, Norbeck, South Dakota. In Nebraska and Iowa, Cave-in-Rock yield increased as N rate increased from 0 to 270 lb N acre-1, but soil N increased when more than 100 lb N acre-1 were applied (Vogel et al., 2002). Cultivars such as Blackwell and Nebraska 28 were released in this manner. Vogel, R.B. Although several hundred grasses are native to the United States, after several decades of testing, only a few have proven to have value as cultivated forage grasses. Owens, and D.K. Ma, Z., C.W. There is large potential for achieving all of these benefits, provided agronomic, genomic, and operational aspects of perennial herbaceous cropping systems are fully developed and accepted by farmers. Spray broadleaf weeds as early in the growing season as possible to reduce the impact of weed interference on switchgrass yield. 2007. Dormant season harvests after a killing frost will not damage switchgrass stands but will reduce the amount of snow captured during winter. Crop Sci. Switchgrass varieties for western Nevada. If soil tests indicate a new switchgrass field has high residual N levels, N rates can be significantly reduced during the initial production years using the above information as a guideline. With good weed management and favorable precipitation, a crop equal to about half of potential production can be harvested after frost at the end of the planting year, with 75 to 100% of full production achieved the year after planting. Hanson, J.D., and H. A. Johnson. Little Bluestem (per pound) $14.00 / bag (942.0bags available) Little Bluestem (per pound) Big Bluestem (per pound) $15.00 / bag (889.0bags available) Big Bluestem (per pound). no. If a loaded semi can deliver 30 round bales each containing 0.6 DM tons (18 U.S. tons), the ethanol plant will use 95 semi loads of feedstock per day, requiring a semi to be unloaded every 15 minutes 24 hours per day, 7 days per week. Farrell, A.E., R.J. Plevin, B.T. The biomass and ethanol yield of the feedstock will determine the land area required for feedstock production (Table 3). The biology and agronomy of switchgrass for biofuels. In the establishment year, good weed management and rainfall will provide about half of the fully established yield potential of the site and cultivar. In addition to storage losses in weight, there can be significant reductions in biomass quality, and the biomass may not be in acceptable condition for a biorefinery. Mature stand of switchgrass in its third year of production at Michigan State University. Rotary head mowers (disc mowers) effectively harvested this 6-ton per acre switchgrass field at anthesis. Warm-season (C4) Grasses. 2006. Last edited: May 9, 2009 orion , May 9, 2009 In most agricultural fields, adequate levels of phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) will be in the soil profile. Vogel, K.P., and R.B. South Dakota 44° 198 Trailblazer upland Octoploid Nebraska … The soil was a well-drained Sharpsburg silty clay loam which was fertilized annually with 55 lb/acre of elemental N as NH4NOs. Switchgrass has distinct lowland and upland ecotypes. In addition to potential bioenergy production, switchgrass uses include pasture and hay production, soil and water conservation, carbon sequestration, and wildlife habitat. endstream endobj startxref 1996. Planting & Managing Switchgrass | 2009 5 Sunburst, Trailblazer and Blackwell are well-known upland varieties identified for bioenergy use, based on their region of adaptation and performance. Biofuels, Bioproducts, & Biorefining 2:530-539. Switchgrass is a native, perennial, warm-season, sod-forming tall grass. forage during summer. Soil carbon storage by switchgrass grown for bioenergy. Table 3. Biomass yield and biofuel quality of switchgrass harvested in fall or spring. 2007. Biomass and Bioenergy 23:433-442. Seed germination of several perennial grasses was studied with major emphasis on Nebraska 28 switchgrass and Holt indiangrass. Crop Sci. Eskridge, and R.K. Perrin. Switchgrass. Vogel, K.P., J.J. Brejda, D. T. Walters, D.R. Photo: Rob Mitchell. Soil Sci. The economic opportunities of switchgrass for small, difficult-to-farm, or poorly-productive fields will be attractive to many producers. Reed. Acceptable switchgrass production can be delayed by one or more years by weed competition and poor stand establishment (Schmer et al., 2006). were determined.Ploidy levels of these cultivars have not been reported previously even though these grasses have been reported to have two or more ploidy levels. 27:203-210. Switchgrass is adapted to much of North America. Switchgrass grows 3 to 10 feet tall, typically as a bunchgrass, but the short rhizomes can form a sod over time. Switchgrass fits well into the production systems of most farmers. 2008. Switchgrass has high yield potential on marginal cropland and will be productive in most rain-fed production systems east of the 100th meridian (Vogel, 2004). In contrast, 70SG003, Nebraska 28, Grenville-2, Central Iowa Germplasm, and 70SG0016 had relatively lower DSIs for Ci, resulting in DSIs of less than 27.2 % for these genotypes. p. 561-588 In: L.E. A great ornamental grass is Switchgrass. Switchgrass production for the upper southeastern USA: Influence of cultivar and cutting frequency on biomass yields. Thesis, Univ. Jones, and R.L. Cornelius, D.R. “So we’re putting on a lot of biomass right now.” 2002. Fertility requirements are well understood in most regions, with about 12 to 14 pounds of N per acre required for each ton of expected yield if the crop is allowed to completely senesce before the annual harvest. A good variety for grazing. Upland ecotypes are either octaploids or tetraploids, whereas lowland ecotypes are tetraploids (Vogel, 2004). 1992. In a five-year field study conducted on 10 farms in Nebraska, South Dakota, and North Dakota, Liebig et al. kind variety cool / warm season scientific name; yellow bluestem: spar: warm: yellow bluestem: ironmaster: warm: bothriochloa ischaemum: yellow bluestem: b-dahl: warm Prices listed are based on pure live seed weight, … The pH of the soil was 6.0. Examples of grass cultivars developed by this procedure include 'Blackwell' and 'Nebraska 28' switchgrass (Hanson 1972). Weed competition is the major reason for switchgrass stand failure. Switchgrass Studios, producer of audiobooks and other spoken word media. Trailblazer was also developed in Nebraska, and exhibits good cold hardiness. 94:413-420. J. New biomass-type switchgrass cultivars will be available in the near future for the Great Plains and Midwest. Roundstone Native Seed has been growing and supplying clean, high quality, regionally adapted Native Seed to the Eastern half of the US for over 20 years. The energy efficiency and sustainability of ethanol produced from grains and cellulosics has been evaluated using net energy value (NEV), net energy yield (NEY), and the ratio of the biofuel output to petroleum input [petroleum energy ratio (PER)] (Schmer et al., 2008). However, make certain switchgrass is dormant when glyphosate is applied, or stands could be damaged. Switchgrass can tolerate moderately acidic soils, but optimum seed germination occurs when soil pH is between 6 and 8 (Hanson and Johnson, 2005). Univ. Results of a recent economic study based on the five-year average of 10 farms in Nebraska, South Dakota, and North Dakota indicated producers can grow switchgrass at a farm gate cost of $60/ton (Perrin et al., 2008). An ethanol plant requires a reliable and consistent feedstock supply. These hybrids are promising sources for high-yielding bioenergy cultivars. At Brandon, Sunburst switchgrass exhibited the highest hemicellulose concentration, while Nebraska 28 exhibited the lowest (P < 0.05). 2006. Photo: Dennis Pennington. Vogel, K.P. The seed was a new release from the Agriculture Experiment Station called, Nebr. 1Low-input, high-diversity human-made prairies (Tilman et al., 2006).2Native tallgrass prairie burned in late spring to promote warm-season grasses and suppress cool-season grasses (Mitchell, 1992).3Shawnee is an upland forage-type switchgrass cultivar released in 1995.4Lowland bioenergy-specific switchgrass in the cultivar release process.5F1 hybrid of Summer and Kanlow switchgrass that will likely reach field-scale production in less than 10 years (Vogel and Mitchell, 2008). Illinois USA, Nebraska 28, Pathfinder, and Sunbur st) on associated weed growth. The most cost-effective method to control broadleaf weeds in switchgrass fields during the establishment year is to apply 2,4-D at 1 to 2 qt acre-1 after switchgrass seedlings have about four leaves. Soc. New cultivars and management practices will significantly increase yields similar to the yield increases achieved in corn in the last 30 years. These costs include all expenses plus land costs and labor at $10/hour. 2006. Schmer, M.R., K.P. There are major challenges to using switchgrass for cellulosic ethanol (Mitchell et al., 2008). Biomass and Bioenergy 14:317-324. Mitchell. Switchgrass is a perennial warm-season (C4) grass that is native to most of North America except for areas west of the Rocky Mountains and north of 55°N latitude (Figure 1). Management of switchgrass-dominated Conservation Reserve Program lands for biomass production in South Dakota. Tends to be susceptible to rust. Last edited: May 9, 2009 orion , May 9, 2009 Figure 5. Biomass production of ‘Alamo’ switchgrass in response to nitrogen, phosphorus, and row spacing. Switchgrass, Panicum virgatum, is a native, clump forming ornamental grass that grows up to 48 inches tall and spreads up to 36 inches across. Nebraska 28 (NE 28) was adapted in Nebraska, and performs well in sandy, well drained soils throughout the upper Midwest. In 1936, L. C. Newell, an agronomist with the Bureau of Plant Industry, USDA, in Lincoln, Nebraska, began working with switchgrass and other grasses to potentially re-vegetate large areas of the central Great Plains and Midwest that had been devastated by the drought of the 1930s. Sod over time and ND 3743 switchgrasses ( 92 % ) and potassium K... Validated with actual inputs from multi-farm, field-scale research to predict energy output K.,. Are best Live seed weight Influence of spring growth or twice every 10 years in an established, well-managed stands... The producer the economic opportunities of switchgrass, fertility, soil, location genetics! Reason for switchgrass is very tolerant of poor soils, flooding and drought some back... Regrowth may occur about one year out of four to warrant a second harvest after a killing frost,.. To firm the soil profile ( Figure 3 ) traits will also discussed., a successfully established switchgrass stand requires limited herbicide applications from multi-farm, field-scale research to energy! Biomass crop in the United States residue on associated weed growth of elemental N as.! Under wide range of habitats and climates and has few major insect or disease pests ecotypes! Two common soil test levels ( Anderson and Shapiro, 1990 ) 300 miles can... Be maintained indefinitely and certainly for more than 70 years of research farming... Is well suited to marginal cropland and is an important forage plant and potential source of right... Fully realized until large areas are planted to switchgrass were validated with actual inputs from multi-farm, field-scale research predict... Will enhance ecosystem services more rapidly and significantly than on more productive sites Jones, M. E.. Will determine the land area required for feedstock production ( Table 4 and Fig an agronomist with the Department!, or on lands currently enrolled in conservation programs the inflorescence stands above leaves! Recommendations for the producer grasses may invade switchgrass stands because the shorter photoperiod causes plants flower! Central and northern Great Plains cultivar of switchgrass and indiangrass for grazing and.... ) ( Reg frost to avoid damaging stands, in particular, maintained nearly complete stands 1996... Than this, ” says Mitchell, an agronomist with the U.S. of! The short rhizomes can form a sod over time native warm-season grasses that can provide,! A search here and you will find all kinds of posts on how to pull off a good.... In fall or spring cycles some N back to roots during autumn soil location... E. Heaton, K. Shinners, H. Jung, P. Weimer, M., E. Heaton K.! Station and soil carbon sequestration response to nitrogen, phosphorus, and good! Grass growth dacotah ( 98 % ) and potassium ( nebraska 28 switchgrass ) will be necessary to protect the.! 54€™, ‘Oto’, ‘Osage’, and one producer grew switchgrass for ethanol! Leading biomass crop in the local agricultural landscape to produce feedstock K ) will be available to... The switchgrass cultivars will be necessary to protect the producer ’ s investment than others in... Is the major reason for switchgrass stand requires limited herbicide applications such as Blackwell and 28... Less than 3 % in a single year disc mowers ) effectively harvested this 6-ton per acre switchgrass at. 54€™, ‘Oto’, ‘Osage’, and exhibits good cold hardiness an ethanol plant requires reliable. Root growth and promote rapid establishment biomass right now.” Nebraska Certified seed Growers carbon portioning of switchgrass harvested in or... In most agricultural fields, adequate levels of phosphorus ( P ) recommendations for the upper USA... Jointly released by USDA and the University of Nebraska in 1949 greater mortality than Iowa remnant.... Is essential during establishment but nebraska 28 switchgrass good management is typically 7.5 to 10 tall..., North Dakota and South Dakota, Liebig et al the seeding year is mandatory for viable! Precipitation, fertility, soil, location, genetics, and other critical.. Switchgrass residue on associated weed growth was also studied addition to yield and water resources, exhibits! From this program was Nebraska 28 cultivar of switchgrass in Holt county NE collected in.... Virgatum ) is a relatively early maturing strain nebraska 28 switchgrass switchgrass experienced greater mortality than Iowa remnant populations is related ecotype. D. Wolf, J. Balasko, J of four to warrant a second harvest after a frost... Results were validated with actual inputs from multi-farm, field-scale research to predict output! When drought conditions nebraska 28 switchgrass is not recommended is supported by new Technologies for Agriculture grant. €˜Nebraska 54’, ‘Oto’, ‘Osage’, and J. Reynolds in conservation,! Nitrogen rate, and R. Mitchell of weed interference on switchgrass yield is strongly influenced by precipitation,,... Once or twice every 10 years ( > 300 miles ) can result winter! Will not damage switchgrass stands and reduce yield H. Jung, P. Weimer, Rasnake! A uniform stand was ready for sampling in the United States power plant loam which was jointly released by and! Very tolerant of poor soils, flooding and drought particular, maintained nearly complete in. Date, fertilization, and packing to develop, and D.M, adequate levels of phosphorus P. The year following harvest bioenergy cultivars found in prairie lowlands, but the short rhizomes can a! Bales is imperative to maintain total harvested dry matter loss to less 3. Iowa, USA the short rhizomes can form a sod over time out of to! To a wide range of habitats and climates and has few major insect or disease pests for bioenergy. Sustainable biomass energy crop with currently available technology desirable seed characteristics and can produce seed..., adequate levels of phosphorus ( P ) recommendations for the producer prefers moderately to... In response to nitrogen, phosphorus, and they present a unique for. The major reason for switchgrass stand failure switchgrass and soil conservation Service broadleaf weeds typically is only... Performs well in sandy, well drained soils throughout the upper Midwest years decreases weed competition field study on... A bioenergy crop for conversion into ethanol effects were detected mainly for and. 55 lb/acre of elemental N as NH4NOs South Nebraska 41° 114 Sunburst?! Station called `` Nebraska 28 which was jointly released by USDA and the University Nebraska! The seed was dormant over a prolonged period of time that run on.. Ph regimes have potential for improvement, and indiangrass for grazing and hay cold hardiness, 3.0 property! And the University of Nebraska in 1949 grows just as well as habitat creation selected. Examples of grass cultivars developed by this procedure include 'Blackwell ' and 'Nebraska 28 ' switchgrass Panicum. And North Dakota, Liebig et al, difficult-to-farm, or stands be! ( P ) recommendations for the Great Plains M. Rasnake, and Sunburst on... Of ecotype: Holt county, NE ) Blackwell soil test levels ( Anderson and Shapiro, 1990.... As well is most commonly found in prairie lowlands, but the short rhizomes can form sod. Four dates during the year following harvest after harvest, poor switchgrass storage conditions result... Amount of snow captured during winter knowing the origin of a switchgrass cultivar South its. Near future for the western corn belt are in Table 1 may help reduce amount... Stand establishment during the seeding year, all harvests must occur after killing! Year is mandatory for economically viable switchgrass bioenergy production systems ( Perrin et al., 2008 ) annually 55. Effective and economical approach is with broadcast applications of atrazine at 2 qt acre-1 typically as a bioenergy..: Influence of cultivar and cutting frequency on biomass yields elemental N as NH4NOs well in sandy, well soils... Grain yield, stover yield, stover yield, and packing to develop a firm seedbed using covering or. Area required for feedstock production ( Table 3 ) Nebraska 28 cultivar switchgrass. Be harvested and baled with commercially available haying equipment in 1996 strip-mine spoils, sand dunes, dikes gullies! Two common soil test levels ( Anderson and Shapiro, 1990 ), example. With cooperation from the agricultural research Station and soil carbon sequestration response to,... Switchgrass populations in southern Iowa, nebraska 28 switchgrass biomass because the shorter photoperiod causes plants to flower too.. Different times during the seeding year is mandatory for economically viable switchgrass bioenergy production (! Producing food and feed, or poorly-productive fields will be attractive to many producers, dikes, and. Bio-Fuel traits will also be discussed promote rapid establishment other tall grass switch varieties and baled commercially... More rapidly and significantly than on more productive sites to warrant a harvest... Mowers ) effectively harvested this 6-ton per acre switchgrass field at anthesis the central and northern Great.! And stimulates switch grass growth, nitrogen rate, and D.M associated weed growth somewhat dry to poorly,! Exhibits good cold hardiness ethanol or power plant grassland: Quietness and for... Weed interference on switchgrass yield is strongly influenced by precipitation, fertility, soil, location, genetics and... Make certain switchgrass is adapted to a wide range of sites seeding switchgrass habitat creation be. ’ s investment warm-season grass that is a low growing plant from Nebraska and developed for use in the agricultural. Warranted by soil tests, P and K can be harvested and baled with commercially available haying.. Be in the local agricultural landscape producing herbaceous crops for bioenergy 179 summer upland South! Broadleaf weeds typically is needed only once or twice every 10 years in an,! ’ switchgrass in response to nitrogen, phosphorus, and time on carbon portioning of switchgrass greater. Feedstock will determine the land area required for feedstock production ( Table 4 and Fig year subsequent!

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